The study aimed to separate the effects of certain Gambling메이저놀이터 activities and modilties from advancing understanding of the relationship between gambling participation, problem gambling seriousness, and psychological distress. As expected, the frequency of participation in each gambling activity and form was associated with greater problem gambling severity and psychological distress. When controlling the overlap between demographic variables and activities, we find that in the past month’s Internet gambler sample, the frequency of a particular gambling activity and style is associated with the severity of the reported gambling problem and the magnitude of psychological distress. Importantly, the non-participation option was also included in the measurement of the frequency of gambling, so by controlling the type of activity, the range of participation was essentially controlled.
The results showed that people who participated in the online version of gambling were more likely to participate in offline gambling메이저놀이터. This is consistent with previous studies [62, 63] suggesting a positive complementary relationship between online and offline gambling activities. Prior research on the motivation of Internet gambling suggests that many Internet gamblers also participate in offline gambling, even though convenience and accessibility are the main factors in choosing this channel [30, 31]. However, it is not possible to talk about the causal relationship between online and offline gambling and keep in mind that future studies will need to examine the temporal sequence of involvement in gambling activities, the pattern and the occurrence of the problem. It is unclear whether online gambling involvement motivates or vice versa or there is no cause-and-effect relationship between the two, and the data does not address this question.
The results show that, although there is a strong correlation between the frequency of play in each modality, certain activities online and in venues are uniquely related to the severity of problem gambling and psychological distress. As hypothesized, the frequency of online and venue participation in the EGM uniquely predicted that controlling the frequency of gambling in other activities would also increase the severity score of problem gambling.
This is consistent with previous studies and theories [33,34,35] suggesting a strong relationship between the use of EGMs and experience of gambling-related problems. It is noteworthy that our findings reproduce and extend previous observations that using EGMs – especially venue-based – is strongly associated with gambling issues, even if it controls the overall breadth of involvement in gambling . The finding that both online and venue-based EGMs are independently associated with gambling problems suggests that there may be something in the game itself that is a problem; for example, the short interval between bets and results allows for quick and continuous bets. However, the finding that only participation in venue-type EGMs is uniquely associated with greater psychological distress suggests differences between access forms. Further research is needed to determine whether there are any differences between online and venue-based EGMs or between different types of EGMs, that would mitigate the relationship between frequent participation and experience of gambling problems and psychological harm.
Contrary to the general debate about online sports betting in Australia, participation in venue-based sports betting was uniquely associated with greater problem gambling severity scores and psychological distress, even when online sports betting was controlled. People who gamble on the Internet may be more involved in this activity because it takes more effort to go to the venue than sports betting online. The results are contrary to previous Australian studies [2, 28] that sports betting is associated with the problem of gamblers on the Internet and not with the problem of gamblers on land.